How does the Cossack rebellion affect Ukraine’s development?

2022-09-22 0 By

Introduction In Tomas Makovsky’s map, Ukraine is a steppe border along the middle Dnieper river.The reclamation of Ukraine was the common goal of the Voynian princes and the Dnipr Cossacks.In 1559 konstanti Ostrosky became governor of Kiev, or governor of the large Ukrainian region of Dnipr.His jurisdiction extended as far as Caniff and Cherkaska, and the administration of the Cossacks became one of his responsibilities.The marauding attacks of the Cossacks on the Tartars and Ottomans were both a safeguard and a hindrance to the growing steppes.Ostrosky made the first effort to integrate the Cossacks into the military system.The idea was not so much to turn the Cossacks into a fighting force as to get them out of the area south of the Dnieper rapids and establish some sort of control over the unruly group.A number of Cossack units were established in the 1570s due to the increasing demand for men on the border between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Tsarist state of Moscow due to the Livonian War.One unit has as many as 500 soldiers.The Cossacks, who had previously served as a militia for border officials, were reorganized into units that answered to officers, opening a new era in Cossack history.The term “registered Cossacks” came into being.Cossacks who were incorporated into the army and enrolled in the “register” were exempt from taxes, were not subject to the jurisdiction of the magistrates, and were paid.Naturally, there were plenty of people who wanted to get into the books, but the Polish royal family recruited only a limited number of people, and the pay and privileges were only valid for active service.Some were never registered in the first place or were removed after a war or campaign.Their refusal to give up their status on the books led to endless quarrels between the Cossacks and border officials.The Cossack registration system solved one problem for the government, but created another.In 1590, the Polish-Lithuanian Federal Parliament approved the creation of a registered Cossack force of 1,000 men to protect the Ukrainian border from Tartars and the Tartars from unregistered Cossacks.Although the king issued the necessary orders, they had no effect.By 1591, the first Cossack rebellion had swept through Ukraine.Until then the Cossacks had attacked Ottoman territory, including the Crimean Khanate, the Principality of Moldavia (a vassal of the Ottoman Empire) and the Black Sea. Now they were turning inward.The Cossacks revolted not against the state but against their own “godfathers”, the princes of Vorynia, especially The Maharaja Janusz Ostrowski (Ostrowski in Polish) and his father Konstanti.Janush was the prefect of Bilatselkova, a castle and Cossack fortress south of Kiev.Konstanti “supervised” his son’s activities as governor of Kiev.The Ostroskys held total control of the region and were intent on expanding their territory by seizing land from the lower nobility.No local nobleman dared challenge the two powerful princes.One of the noblemen oppressed by the Ostrosky family was Krishtov Kosinski, a Cossack chief.When Janush took away kosinski’s land, which had been granted by the king, Kosinski wasted no time in appealing to the king. Instead, he gathered his Cossacks and attacked the castle of Bilatselkova, the seat of little Ostrosky’s power.The Ostroskys and another Volinian maharaja, Alexander Vshnevitsky, raised a private army and eventually defeated Kosinski.The princes put down the rebellion without asking the royal family for help.Ironically, the Cossack “godfathers” punished their “children” with the help of other Cossacks who did their bidding.The most famous Cossack leader under Ostrosky was no doubt Severen Nalyvajko.Severen led Ostrosky’s Cossacks against Kosinski’s forces, and gathered the Cossacks scattered on the Podolian steppes, leading them as far away from Ostrosky’s property as possible.After all, the Ostroskys’ control and manipulation of the Cossack rebellion was limited.The Cossacks would elect their governor and follow him into battle, but they were not afraid to dethrone or even execute him once the battle was over and he acted against their interests.Cossacks at that time were highly divided, not limited to registered and unregistered.The listed Cossacks came from the propertyclass of Cossacks, whose members lived in towns and settlements between Kiev and Cherkasser.They had the opportunity to gain special rights through service to the crown.However, there was another Cossack group, the Zaporoge Cossacks, whose members were formerly mostly peasants.On an island south of the Rapids of the Dnieper, they built a fortified settlement called Sitch (after the fence they used to defend them), far from the control of royal officials.They are responsible for much of the harassment of Crimean Tatars.In times of unrest, the Zaporoge Cossacks were a magnet for disaffected townspeople and farmers fleeing the steppe.Nalywajko was appointed by Ostrosky to manage the Cossacks’ “rabble”, most of whom were fleeing peasants, and soon formed an uneasy alliance with the unruly Zaporoge Cossacks.Among the poets who praised Nalyvayko was Kondraj Leleyev, who was also executed in 1826 for leading a rebellion against authoritarianism.At the end of the 16th century, cossacks were considered in foreign policy not only by the Polish-Lithuanian Federation and the Ottoman Empire, but also by various powers in Central and Western Europe.In 1593 erich von Lassotta, an envoy to the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, visited the Zaporoge Cossacks and proposed that they join his monarch in the war against the Ottomans.Three years later, the papal envoy Alessandro Comollo arrived for a similar purpose.Nothing came of these visits except letters from Comolho and lassota’s diary.Both men add to our understanding of early Cossack history by documenting the democratic order in the Zapoge Cossacks’ Sitch.But the Cossacks were already on the radar of Vienna and Rome, and would soon be attracting attention from as far away as Paris and London, posing a major threat to Moscow.The Ukrainian Cossacks first came to the international stage in the 1550s, when they began to work for Tsar Ivan the Terrible of Moscow.They showed up in Moscow, uninvited, in the first decade of the 17th century.The Tsarist State of Moscow was in turmoil at the moment, in the midst of an economic, dynastic and political crisis known as the “Year of Turbulence”.The crisis began with a series of devastating famines at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries.Part of the reason for the famine was the cold climate known today as the Little Ice Age, which lasted for 500 years from about 1350 to about 1850 and peaked around the beginning of the 17th century.The crisis struck Moscow at an inopportune time, when the Rurik monarchy in Moscow was dead and various aristocratic groups were disputing over the legitimacy of the new monarch.It was not until 1613 that the first Romanov tsar was installed as king in Moscow that the dynastic crisis ended.Before the crisis was over, however, many candidates tried their luck in politics — including some who claimed to be living relatives of Ivan the Terrible and were known as “pretenders” — thus opening the door to foreign intervention.The Cossacks supported two pretenders to the Throne of Moscow during this long interregy, False Dmitry I and False Dmitry II.When Stanislav Zhuukevski, head of the Polish royal family, marched on Moscow in 1610, as many as 10, 000 Cossacks joined his army.Although Mikhail Romanov (the founder of the Romanov dynasty that lasted until the 1917 revolution) was elected tsar three years later, the Cossacks did not cease their involvement in Moscow’s affairs.In 1618, a Ukrainian Cossack army of 20,000 marched on Moscow with the Poles and captured part of the capital during a siege.Eventually, the Cossacks helped end the war on an agreement favorable to the Kingdom of Poland.One part of the agreement was the transfer to Poland of the Chernigov region, which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had lost in the early 16th century.By the middle of the 17th century, Chernikov would be an important part of the Cossack world.Conclusion As at other times before, however, the Cossacks were both an aid and an obstacle to the Polish king’s foreign affairs.During its war with the Muscovites, the Polish-Lithuanian federation was never able to gain the support it had hoped for from the Ottoman Empire, partly because of the Cossacks’ continued naval operations and attacks on the Ottoman coastal areas.