Why tuotuo failed to alleviate the conflict by using the Han method? Why was Zhu Yuanzhang replaced by yuan Dynasty

2022-04-24 0 By

Tuotuo, styled Dayong, was born in 1314 and died in 1356. He was born in Mongolia and was a member of the Mongol Tribe.Tuotuo’s mentor was wu Zhifang, a famous Confucian scholar in eastern Zhejiang at that time.Wu Zhifang was granted the title of Shangdu Road Scholar (not in office).Tuo Tuo’s father Ma Zha ertai was surprised by Wu Zhi Fang’s talent and strategy, and hired him as a tutor.From then on, the tuotuo brothers followed Wu Zhi Fang to study Confucianism.From the perspective of the political reform carried out by Tuotuo later, he can be regarded as the Mongolian minister who practiced The Han law and Confucianism most thoroughly in the history of the Yuan Dynasty.For example, he appointed officials, resolutely opposed favoritism and advocated recommending people of good qualities.After the fall of Bo Yan, as the right prime minister of the Book, Ma Zazer Tai only to sell money for the business, so take off to impeach his father, let shun emperor removed his position.For another example, Wu Zhifang had no roots and had never been elected. He admired the teacher’s strategy and therefore took him as his confidant and listened to Wu zhifang’s advice many times in the process of eliminating the old and reforming the old politics.The essence of the reform was to solve the problem of the lack of public support in the imperial court after more than 30 years of political power.First, to resume the imperial examinations, which had been suspended by Bo Yan, and at the same time to revitalize the imperial Academy, so as to attract the hearts of scholars all over the world.Second, set up xuanwen Pavilion, selected scholars to teach the classics for the emperor, cultivate the emperor elegant Confucian style;He ordered the translation of “Zhenguan Political Essentials” into Mongolian, and taught the children of Mongolian nobles to prepare for the implementation of Confucianism and Han Law.Third, the restoration of the ancestral temple four hours of worship, in order to etiquette system, reforming the order of high and low.Fourthly, to ease the contradictions generated by the struggle among the nobles, and to return the lands and titles to some nobles who were deprived of their territories by the attack of the nobles, so as to win Allies for the subsequent restructuring and reduce resistance.Fifth, the tax exemption, salt reduction and tax deduction work were implemented to ease people’s complaints, recuperate people’s strength and strive for space for rest and recreation.Sixthly, the local officials were assessed according to six standards. Those who had them were promoted and those who did not were demoted. The intention was to train a large number of competent officials to follow the officials and pave the way for greater reform.Tuotuo’s reform measures had strong Chinese and French colors, such as recuperating the people’s strength, reconciling the nobles’ internal contradictions, and saving the current affairs.After the youth exile and blood feud, emperor Shun of Yuan also showed the appearance of making great efforts to govern, making the government a new one.Tuotuo ruled the country well, both at home and abroad called him a wise prime minister.However, even if the REINS are removed, the process will not be smooth.Under the impeachment of political opponents in the dynasty, to the fourth year (1344) in May, Detuo said he was ill and resigned, and later went to Ganzhou to care for the exiled father.Five years later, when Tuotuo reentered the prime minister, the internal and external situation deteriorated further.To is nine years (1349) leap July, take off to answer for the book right prime minister.In the face of a devastated world, Tuotuo continued to carry out reforms.The failure of subsequent restructuring was caused by the financial deficit that lasted from the reign of Ahma to the reign of Emperor Shun yuan.Specifically, it is bad currency law.During the more than 30 years when the officials were in power, both the emperor and the officials printed banknotes to meet the increasing demand for spending money, and counterfeited banknotes ran rampant. As a result, the banknote law was seriously corrupted, and people’s livelihood suffered greatly.Changing the banknote law is undoubtedly the most direct measure to solve this problem.In the tenth year of zheng dynasty (1350), with the support of Emperor Shun, Tuotuo issued the Zhengzheng Banknote method: The banknote to Zhengjiao was printed and produced. Under the same amount, the value was twice that of the yuanbao banknote before, and the two banknotes were used in parallel.At the same time, copper coins named “Zhi Zheng Tong Bao” were issued to support the implementation of the new banknote law.Since there is no regulation on how to deal with the central banknotes in circulation before, it seems that they have not been abolished. The issuance of new banknotes will undoubtedly lead to an increase in the amount of money in circulation and aggravate inflation.As copper money itself is valuable and banknotes are used simultaneously, people will inevitably accumulate money instead of banknotes, resulting in bad money driving out good ones.In addition, soon after the issuance of the new banknotes, peasant wars broke out on a nationwide scale, and the government of the Yuan Dynasty suffered a sharp decrease in fiscal revenue and a sharp increase in military expenditure. The Yuan Dynasty regarded the excessive issuance of banknotes as an emergency means.Sure enough, the country has a “price jump” hyperinflation.Both in Beijing and at the local level, the new and old notes almost completely lost credibility and purchasing power, and fiscal reform failed.Unsolved man-made disasters, frequent natural disasters, resulting in greater turmoil.The Yellow River had two breaches as early as the summer of the fourth year of the Zhengzheng Period, and again in the eighth year of the Zhengzheng Period (1348).Three breaches flooded much of Henan Province, blocked canal navigation, and reduced the amount of taxed grain brought into most of the province.The flood also hit the salt farms along the Shandong coast, and revenue from salt taxes, one of the financial pillars of the empire, was severely affected.Because of the corruption of local officials and the decrease of financial revenue, the Yuan government could not effectively relieve the victims. In addition, the reform of banknote law failed, and prices skyrocketed, making people’s livelihood even more difficult.Rebellions from the vagabonds continued, and the entire Yuan Empire was like a powder keg whose fuse was about to burn out.In the eleventh year (1351), Tuotuo made up his mind to control the river in an attempt to bring the refugees home.Canal traffic, wealth allocation unobserved, also help to ease the sharp contradiction.The river work began in April and was completed in November.Within seven months, the project was declared a success.However, the uprising of the Red Turban army interrupted tuotuo’s dream of reform completely, and the Yuan Dynasty fell from then on.After the outbreak of the Red Turbans uprising, heroes around and take off the rate of the army four crusade.In 1354, Tuotuo led a force of one million to attack Zhang Shicheng, in an attempt to open up the Jiangnan Passageway, which was crucial to the survival of the Yuan Dynasty.Zhang Shicheng defeated, trapped gaoyou.But at the last minute, Emperor Yuanshun listened to slanders and dismissed Tuotuo from his post.Although some of his subordinates advised him not to obey the edict, Tuotuo, who strictly adhered to the emperor’s orders, still refused.After taking off was removed from office, yuan Army morale lax, in the Gaoyou campaign unexpectedly did not fight and rout.From then on, the Yuan dynasty was no longer able to attack the rebels and could only turn to the defensive.Without jiangnan, it was only a matter of time before the Yuan dynasty, which lacked financial support, collapsed.In the twenty-seventh year (1367), Zhu Yuanzhang’s army integrated the separatist groups in the South of the Yangtze River and then attacked the Central Plains in the north. In August of the following year, zhu yuanzhang’s army invaded Dadu.Emperor Yuanshun fled hurriedly and the Yuan dynasty ended.The essence of the politics of officials in the Yuan Dynasty was the concentrated expression of the unreconcilable contradictions in the dual structure of Mongolian and Han under the pluralistic system.The causes are as follows.First, the succession of the throne was disorderly.Temujin period of the establishment of the Huritai assembly system, so that the khan position within the gold family to become customized.As long as the military merit, prestige is enough, can lead the Mongolian clan to open up territory, amass wealth, can submit to the people and ascend khan.This encouraged the sons of the golden family to pursue expeditions, which had its merits, but by the time Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty and pacified the Southern Song, there was little chance of expansion.How to keep the achievement, standardize the system and regulations, stabilize the social order, and promote both scholars, agriculture and industry became the first task of the Yuan Dynasty.Due to the lack of a clear succession order, the yuan dynasty’s temple and politics were always full of instability, with the golden family’s relatives constantly vying for the khan’s throne.Every disorderly change of imperial power brought bloody killings and purges that interrupted the normal functioning of the dynasty.Secondly, in order to deal with the tense frontier situation in northwest China, Kublai Khan adopted the system of “king leaving town”, which produced bad results.During the Reign of Emperor Shizu in the north, there were frequent rebellions.In order to counter the haidu and solve the threat of the renegade king in the northwest to the hinterland of the Mongolian grassland, the Yuan dynasty stationed a large number of troops in the north for a long time and controlled the situation in the border area with the emperor’s sons.Thus, although the prince who stayed in Dadu had a nominal political advantage, the prince who left the steppe was armed with a large army and enjoyed the support of the steppe Kings, which was easily contested when the succession took place.In order to further improve their political influence, the military nobles in the border areas were also willing to participate in or even encourage the king of Zhenzong to fight for the throne.The powerful military force in the border area often became the key to the emperor in the middle and late Yuan Dynasty.The emperors who came into power through coup d ‘etat increased their awards and promises of power to the generals who had the merit of support, and the system of officials with obvious political color of martial arts expanded rapidly.Having lived in the border area for a long time, they were unfamiliar with the Han law and the Han system. Once they stepped into the temple and took power, the conflict with the Han Law school in the administrative ideas naturally intensified and even became uncontrollable.Third, the heavy roots of origin.This is the continuation of qi-Xue aristocratic system.Mongolian noble families always held the power and extended their power by forming alliances with relatives and exchanging interests.The trouble with aristocracy is that, after a long run, the flow of classes tends to stagnate, and the world loses hope.The more obvious problem is that in the chaotic change of imperial power, the Kings who want to get their hands on the throne often rely on powerful nobles to fight each other.When the selection of the imperial throne depends on one or two families, the officials came into being, the imbalance of power since then, and the officials are also keen to take the initiative to change the ownership of the country, a dynasty’s operating order has naturally become extremely fragile.After all, Tuotuo was a minority. Most of the officials of the Yuan Dynasty seldom had the concept of “the world” in the traditional sense. They often attached more importance to their personal desires and family interests than others.Once they took power, they mostly pursued a narrow and bloody policy of collecting taxes and intensified existing contradictions.Conclusion The court was unstable, with great internal strife, serious accumulation and exploitation. Because of their personal desires, the officials not only destroyed the stability of the political structure, but also impacted the stability of the economic structure, resulting in a vicious circle of chaos and disorder, until the collapse of the empire.From this point of view, it is not too much to say that the Yuan Dynasty died in the politics of officials.